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Special Application Systems

CANBERRA is the world's leading supplier of nuclear measurement systems, offering a full line of equipment to help customers characterize and document the content of their radioactive waste. While a range of standard systems are available to address the requirements of many common nuclear measurement problems, the unique needs of a given application may occasionally necessitate a custom solution. When this is the case, CANBERRA will partner with you to develop a satisfactory solution for the specific application.

Standard waste assay systems may be tailored to meet the unique requirements of each customer while maintaining the basic characteristics and functions of an off-the-shelf system. CANBERRA's solutions build from the company's core capabilities and competencies, including:

  • Wide range of HPGe, NaI and other detectors
  • Full set of CANBERRA MCA's, and spectroscopy software
  • Basic modules from other standard systems (PLC controls, shielding, etc.)
  • Mathematical modeling of detection systems to predict performance
  • Extensive team of physics and development resources

This building block approach minimizes engineering costs, reduces production time and assures performance

Special Application Systems

Products in this category

WM2400 Large-Volume Decommissioning Counters

WM2400 Large-Volume Decommissioning Counters

Features

  • Free-release measurement of decommissioning material including thermal insulation, steel pipes, electrical wiring and concrete
  • Automatic clean/contaminated decision
  • Automated operation for high throughput applications
  • Large sample volume – 1 m3 (250 gallon)
  • Energy and density calibration
  • Ge or NaI(Tl) detectors
  • Software corrects for sample density
  • Correlates gamma emitters to non-gamma emitters based on waste stream type

WM2400 Large-Volume Decommissioning Counters

WM2500 Modular Gamma Box and Container Counter

WM2500 Modular Gamma Box and Container Counter

Description

The modular gamma box and container counter provides a flexible platform for performing fixed and reproducible waste characterization measurements of large containers. Designed for use with one or more high purity germanium detectors in shielded modules, the box counter can be adjusted for a variety of container sizes with the ability for vertical and horizontal adjustment of the detectors in addition to translational segment measurements. Typical matrix correction is performed using a multi-density efficiency calibration which can be physically performed or created using ISOCS models.

Features

  • Fully assays B-25 container (1 x 1 x 3m3) (4 x 4 x 6 ft.) in 30 minutes
  • 0.01 Bq/g (0.3 pCi/g) typical detection limits for B-25 container
  • Available with manual, powered or automatic conveyor systems for sampling handling
  • Flexible structure provides fixed and reproducible geometries

WM2500 Modular Gamma Box and Container Counter

Hybrid K-Edge/XRF Analyzer

Hybrid K-Edge/XRF Analyzer

Description

The Hybrid K-Edge/XRF Analyzer is designed to identify and quantify several heavy elements in homogeneous liquid or solid samples simultaneously. It has proven to give approximately the same measurement precision as destructive chemical analysis methods, yet is much simpler and faster to use. The instrument was developed at KFK Karlsruhe1, and is available from CANBERRA under license.

The system consists of a basic K-Edge densitometer (KED) with the additional capability for simultaneous X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of induced X rays, as shown in Figure 1. The typical configuration incorporates a constant potential X-ray system, two LEGe detectors, standard NIM electronics and a computer for data acquisition, analysis and display. The KED and XRF analyses can be run simultaneously or individually on a single sample or on separate samples, depending upon the application and the required accuracy.

KED measurements can be run for single element samples (like Th, U, or Pu) and for dual element pairs such as Th/U and U/Pu. A highly collimated beam from the X-ray tube passes through a sample vial containing about 2 mL of the sample material. At the element-specific K absorption edge energy the attenuation changes abruptly when this element is present in the sample (Figure 2). The energy at which this jump occurs unambiguously defines the element and the height of the jump is a measure of the concentration of the element in the sample.

Another X-ray beam from the same X-ray tube is used for the XRF analysis. This beam stimulates the emission of characteristic K X-rays from the heavy elements in the solution. The intensities of these induced X rays are a measure of their relative concentrations.

The precision obtained with heavy element concentrations in solution of greater then 50 g/L is better then 0.5% at the one sigma level for a counting time of 20 minutes2. For analyses requiring an accuracy of greater than 0.5% spectroscopic glass cells of well-defined path length are recommended as sample vials.

A standalone XRF measurement is the preferred mode for analysis of very dense solid samples or for liquid samples of low concentrations. The XRF analysis using the energetic K X-rays provides a precision of better than 1% for concentrations above 1 g/L, and of 10% at 0.05 g/L. The limit of detection is 0.01 g/L with a counting time of 20 minutes.

Samples containing several heavy elements can be measured in the combined KED/XRF mode. In this mode, the XRF channel determines element ratios and the KED measurement the reference basis for the determination of absolute concentrations. The combined KED/XRF analysis of a U/Pu solution in a concentration ratio of 1/1000 yields a precision for the major element concentration (100 g/L) of 0.1-0.2% and of 0.7% for the precision of the ratio determination.

The Hybrid K-edge method is ideally applicable for nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The use of the higher energy K X-rays (as compared to L X-rays used by other XRF techniques) makes it possible to irradiate the sample and detect the X rays through the stainless steel walls of the glovebox. The reduction of the sample volume to a few milliliters and the use of a high power X-ray tube (3 kW) assure a good signal to noise ratio even at the very high gamma backgrounds of the dissolver solutions. The same instrument can also be used for production control.

Its operational simplicity and speed of analysis makes the Hybrid K-Edge/XRF Analyzer the ideal control instrument for accountancy verification laboratories for safeguards applications.

Hybrid K-Edge/XRF Analyzer

Features

  • Authorized for routine inspection use by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as the HKED and KEDG
  • Non-destructive on-site analysis of heavy elements in a wide variety of materials, including highly radioactive samples
  • Analysis for several elements simultaneously
  • No sample preparation required
  • Only 2 mL of the sample material is required
  • Precision typically better than 0.5%
  • Typical assay time of 5 to 20 minutes
HKED Software

HKED Software

Introduction

Hybrid K-Edge Densitometry (HKED) is a highly accurate non-destructive analysis technique used to determine the uranium and plutonium concentrations in dissolver and product solutions as an alternative to chemical (destructive) analysis. The HKED technique is utilized in the fuel recycling process, typically in production, on-site laboratory, and research environments. The technique uses results from two measurements performed simultaneously providing both a K-Edge transmission (KED) measurement and an X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) measurement of the sample. The HKED Software automates the process of measuring and analyzing samples by controlling the HPGe gamma detectors, and ancillary equipment when needed. The analysis is integrated into the software and conforms to the currently accepted algorithms referenced in the international standard ISO 134641. CANBERRA's experience with the application and the software dates back to the original development of the technique through close collaboration with the originators. The original HKED software is VMS-based, but with increasing concerns for the obsolescence of this platform, a new PC-platform based software has been developed.

The new software has an easy-to-use graphical user interface for all functions, including setup, calibration, sample measurement, and system maintenance. Although not directly visible to the user, the algorithms used in the analysis remained unchanged in order to ensure traceability of results. Also not directly visible is the underlying architecture of the software which allows for the future addition of new analysis algorithms when needed.

The following section highlights some of the software function and performance.

Description

The HKED software is based on a client-server architecture where the client is a relatively small application that contains the user interface that communicates with a server that contains the main control and analysis parts of the software. The client may be on the same computer as the server or it may be on a different computer. The above screen shows the main user interface of the HKED software. The interface offers functionality and displays information in an intuitive fashion through a Title and a Menu bar, and through panels for Navigation, Spectral view and control, and Message and Device display. The spectral view panel is known as MVC for MCA (Multi-Channel Analyzer) View and Control and is the main display during measurements for viewing the sample spectra from both the KED and XRF detectors. The software is designed to promote an easy flow of the logical progression of operations including Setup, Measurement (or Assay) and Analysis, Calibration, and Data Review. By allowing different user types based on the Windows login, the software can control access to these various functions by assigning privileges based on whether the user is an Operator, an Analyst (data review), a Manager, or Administrator.

CANBERRA HKED Software

Features

  • Intuitive User Interface for simplified operations and status display
  • Multiple measurement protocols are supported and facilitated using the 'Count Type' and 'Sample Type' paradigm
  • Calibration options, performance, and review are fully integrated
  • Preexisting (VMS) calibrations can be imported; new calibrations can be exported
  • Data export (xml format) is possible to a facility LIMS system
  • Data Review is enhanced with flexibility to review and reanalyze data files
  • Security features integrated with Windows®-defined account properties
  • Archiving and restore capability for data files
  • PC platform eliminates all software and hardware issues faced by VMS™ obsolescence

Key Customer Benefits

  • Fully integrated operation, measurement, calibration, and analysis capability for HKED systems
  • Ease of use for setup and operations reduces facility burden on training and reduces risk of operator error

Applications

  • Nuclear Safeguards; On-Site Laboratories
  • Process monitoring; fuel recycling and fuel fabrication facilities
  • Research, Development, and Training Laboratories